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Inactivated vaccines can be effective if used in conjunction with other practices, such as controlled movement of animals and people and with careful analysis of whether the vaccine antigen is a good antigenic match with the circulating strain.

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Swine influenza viruses are diverse at genetic and antigenic level, resulting in a limited cross-reactivity in viruses sharing a common ancestor or belonging to a same subtype.

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Infectious outbreaks can last for more than a month at a population level, which explain that a new batch including mainly susceptible piglets can get infected if the animals are housed in a separate room but in the same compartment (airborne transmission).

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Infection with swine influenza virus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome during the suckling period was associated with an increase in post-weaning mortality (more limited in the case of SIV and of larger magnitude for PRRSV).

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Pigs can act as a source of new influenza strains with zoonotic potential, but the increase of the genetic diversity of the swine influenza viruses is largely due to the introduction of influenza strains of human origin. Therefore, it is highly recommended that all staff that has frequent contact with pigs should be vaccinated against influenza.

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Influenza infections are self-limiting at the individual animal level with infection lasting between 5 and 7 days approximately. However, influenza virus is considered endemic in swine populations worldwide, and is not uncommon to find between 3 and 5% of pigs positive to influenza virus at slaughter.

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According to data from the Iowa State University´s Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (VDL), numbers of influenza-associated swine respiratory cases has been rising over the past 7 years in the US. Influenza A viruses in swine (IAV-S) are the second-most common cause of it.
The challenge is that the typical clinical symptoms of influenza varies and the time of sampling is crucial. This article describes useful sampling and testing methods including sampling tips in a nutshell.

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A perfect antigenic match is ideal because it will result in little to no virus replication/damage, shedding or clinical signs. However, if the virus is similar enough to have cross-reaction, the infection can be reduced to as few as 2-4 days.

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A relatively high proportion of young piglets in a farrowing unit of a herd with circulating swine influenza virus may be infected by SIV during the first weeks after birth revealing that not all piglets are protected by maternal antibodies.

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As the Influenza A virus ecology has become more complex due to viral reassortment and mutation, so have the sample types and diagnostic tests available for detecting or diagnosing influenza infections in swine.

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